Beast to Barefoot: How to Run in Minimalist Running Shoes (Plus, Merrell Trail Glove Review!)

by Jason Fitzgerald

Minimalist running shoes – or “barefoot” shoes – are all the rage right now. You can’t go anywhere without seeing runners in Vibram FiveFingers. But should you run in them all the time?

Minimalist Running Shoes

I think running exclusively in minimalist shoes isn’t ideal. They can help you develop lower leg and foot strength and reinforce a more efficient running stride, but they don’t provide enough support to be used on a daily basis.

Most runners didn’t grow up barefoot. The majority of us have to wear dress shoes or other more bulky shoes throughout the day. We simply do not have the lower leg strength that’s  built up over years to support running in very minimalist trainers for every workout.

Instead, minimalist running should be used as a tool – just like a long run or hill workout. It’s one component of a good training program that works a specific area of your fitness. Just like your long run helps build your endurance, a pair of minimalist shoes (like Merrell running shoes) can promote better running form and foot strength.

Just like you wouldn’t do a hill workout every day, you shouldn’t train in minimalist shoes every day.

So What Exactly is a Minimalist Running Shoe?

Minimalist shoes have several characteristics. Not every shoe considered “minimalist” will be the same – in fact, there’s a huge variety of shoes on the market so it’s important to realize that there’s a spectrum of minimalism. Each shoe will have a combination of these:

  • Lightweight – typically less than 9 ounces
  • Wider toebox to allow your toes to splay
  • Low heel-toe drop (the difference in height between the heel and forefoot area)
  • Minimal cushioning, allowing you to run closer to the ground
  • More flexibility / less support

On the far side of the minimalism spectrum you’ll have the infamous Brooks Beast – a 14 ounce motion-control shoe featuring a “Progressive Diagonal Rollbar” and a full-length “Bio MoGo midsole.” (WTF are those?) It promises a lot of technology, cushioning, and support for runners with low arches or flat feet and who over-pronate.

I don’t recommend this shoe for anyone.

The opposite side of the minimalism spectrum is running barefoot. The next level up is likely Vibram Fivefingers, a 4.4 ounce “shoe” with  only a thin rubber sole and separate pockets for each toe. You don’t get any closer to being completely barefoot than with a pair of FiveFingers.

Minimalist shoes are on the VFF side of the spectrum – lighter, closer to the ground, more flexible, and less cushioned versions of more traditional running shoes. If you want to run in “less shoe,” read on!

How to Run in Less Shoe

You’re going to run a little differently in a much more minimalist shoe. With a lower heel and less cushioning, it’s easier to run with better running form (one of the reasons why it’s so beneficial to train occasionally in very light shoes).

There’s not a perfect way to run or a single form that beats all others. But there are a set of best practices that you should try to follow:

  • Increase your cadence to about 170-180 steps per minute
  • Land with your foot directly underneath your body
  • Lean forward slightly from the ankles (not the waist)
  • Your arms should be bent at about 90 degrees and swing from the shoulder in a straight line, not crossing the mid-line of your torso
  • Your foot should land in a neutral, flat position on your midfoot. If you’re a slight heelstriker, that’s okay if your shoe has a little more cushion (even some elite runners are heel strikers)
  • Look straight ahead (not at your feet) and focus on being relaxed

One of the best ways to improve your running form is to simply run a lot. By running frequently, your body will learn how to adopt the most efficient stride for you. So work on running more days per week and increasing your mileage safely.

This doesn’t mean I’m telling you to run more while in minimalist shoes. But as a general rule, runners who “run more” (it’s all relative) have better running economy and efficiency.

You might notice that it’s harder to run at your usual pace in minimalist running shoes. That’s totally normal – your muscles are working harder to absorb shock (instead of your shoes doing all the work)l so you’re using more energy to run the same pace. Just acknowledge that your pace is a little slower and don’t try to push your effort beyond what you know you’re capable of.

Always err on the side of caution and run a little too slow if you’re unsure how fast to run.

How to Transition to Minimalist Running Shoes

Your body will need time to adapt to the new stress of more minimalist running shoes. So remember that it’s a long-term process!

And let me repeat: the goal should not be to run in less and less shoe until you’re barefoot. The goal is to wear minimalist shoes as a tool to help you develop a more economical stride and prevent injuries by increasing your lower leg and foot strength.

As you transition to a more minimalist shoe, remember these basic rules:

  • Not everyone should try to run in the most minimalist pair of shoes they can find. Any runner who’s overweight, has very flat arches, or severe over-pronation should transition with caution. You may not want to run in lightweight trainers at all, but instead stick with foot strength exercises (more on that later).
  • There are no short-cuts to running in less shoe. It’s a long-term process so if anybody says you can do it quickly, you know they’re lying. Safety should be your #1 priority.
  • Most running shoes only last between 300 – 500 miles. How long yours last will depend on the type of shoe, the running surface you typically run on, your stride pattern, and how much you weigh. Lightweight shoes may last for fewer miles.
  • Always alternate at least two pairs of shoes – alternating helps prevent injuries and allows you to wear one lightweight pair and a more traditional pair of shoes. It also prolongs the life of your shoes by allowing them to “rest” (they need recovery too!).

Now that the ground rules are set, let’s look at the specific steps you can follow to transition safely into a more minimalist pair of running shoes.

  1. Buy a more supportive pair of minimalist shoes. My top recommendations include the ASICS Speedstar or the Saucony Kinvara. Alternate shorter runs in this pair with longer runs in your more traditional pair of shoes.
  2. At least three times every week, strengthen your feet with two sets of these foot exercises: picking up marbles with your toes and rolling a small towel. They’re simple, fun, and effective.
  3. After 2-3 weeks of alternating  short runs with your lightweight trainers and doing your foot exercises, run a weekly session of 2-4 barefoot strides after an easy run. It’s best to do these on an artificial turf or manicured field.
  4. About two weeks later you can increase the number of strides to 4-6 per session. After another two weeks, try running two sessions per week.
  5. Once you’re doing steps 1-4, you’re getting almost all the benefits of barefoot running! Stronger feet and lower legs, more running efficiency, but with a dramatically smaller injury risk.
  6. If you want to do more, replace your traditional running shoes with another pair of “more supportive” minimalist shoes.

You can continue in this pattern of replacing one pair of shoes with a slightly less supportive shoe until you’re running in the lightest and most flexible minimalist shoes you can find, like the FiveFingers. You could even consider doing a small amount of barefoot running at the end of your easy runs.

One of the most minimalist shoes on the market right now is the Merrell Trail Glove – a pair I was lucky to test the last few weeks. And now…a review!

Merrell Trail Glove Review

Merrell Trail Glove_Side

The good folks at RunningShoes.com (they sell running shoes – go figure!) provided a pair of shoes to test and review here. As is my usual policy, this is a 100% honest review with no preferential treatment. It doesn’t matter if I hated them or loved them.

The Merrell Trail Glove is an extremely lightweight, flexible, zero heel-toe drop trail running shoe. Before this, I had never run in shoes that had a neutral heel-toe drop besides track spikes. It’s a very unique experience and something that you have to get used to gradually over time. Runners who aren’t use to the heel being at the same level as the forefoot will put excessive strain on their achilles tendon, soleus, and calf muscles if they’re not careful.

I started wearing the Trail Glove casually with a pair of jeans. They’re not the best shoes for walking since you naturally heel strike when walking and they offer little cushioning. But after learning to walk a little more carefully, I gradually got used to them and now find them extremely comfortable. With a wide toe box and the ability to keep my foot in a neutral position, my feet are happy wearing them for short walks or doing errands.

You’ll notice from the side shot photos that the forefoot area bends up slightly when you’re not wearing them. I didn’t even notice this when walking or running in them. My thought is that they would ideally be 100% neutral – meaning they’d be totally flat. I’m not sure if this natural bend to the forefoot changes my foot position in the shoe, but it’s something to consider when making your purchase.

Merrell Trail Glove_Side1

At this stage of my training, I’m not ready to go for long runs in an aggressive minimalist shoe like the Merrell Trail Glove. I wore them for a half-mile of an easy run and noticed the difference immediately. It’s almost impossible to heel strike in these shoes and since I’m a slight heel-striker, my form changed to accommodate the shoes.

With a more neutral landing, I felt more efficient. And it made me want to run a lot faster because it reminded me of wearing track spikes (but I didn’t, I know better). The tread on the bottom of the Merrell’s is designed for trail running so I could definitely see myself changing into these for a trail fartlek or tempo run once my lower leg strength is up.

Besides the zero heel-toe drop, the most significant difference between the Trail Glove and other shoes is the size of the toe box. It’s very roomy and even runners with wider feet should have no problem having enough room in the spacious toe area. The idea behind a wide toe box is to give your toes enough room to splay out, “grip” the ground, and avoid over-crowding or cramping your toes together.

You can get a great sense of the size of the toe box in the shot below. It’s wide.

Merrell Trail Glove_Toe Box

The tread on the bottom of the shoe is designed for trails and manufactured by Vibram. I take that as a sign of quality. I stay away from trail running shoes mostly because the tread is too aggressive for my tastes (and most of them are quite heavy) but the Merrell sole is just right.

I wore them on rocky trails and nothing got stuck in the tread. They also feel fine on pavement and smooth dirt surfaces, unlike a lot of other trail running shoes.

Merrell Trail Glove_Sole

So do I recommend the Merrell Trail Glove? Only for advanced minimalist runners who are looking for a real barefoot shoe. These are super light at 6.2 ounces, have no difference in height between the heel and the forefoot, and will require a lot of getting used to.

If you haven’t transitioned away from your traditional trainers yet, I highly suggest starting with a more supportive pair of minimalist running shoes.

Thank you to RunningShoes.com for allowing me to review the Merrell Trail Glove! I hope that you run safe in your pair of minimalist shoes, transition gradually, and remember to always think long-term about becoming a barefoot runner if that’s your goal!

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Zorbs

I so want to love the Kinvaras, but they just don’t feel “right” on me.

Josh Camson

Agreed 100%

Jason

Then don’t wear them! There’s a lot of minimalist shoes on the market, so find one that works for you. RRS has a wear it and return it guarantee, which lends itself well to trying out shoes. You just have to be a VIP member, which is like 2 bucks — http://bit.ly/AAObJP

Kris

I’ve been running in Kinvara’s for a while and love them. Took about a month to get used to them, now I do nearly all my runs in them (which for me means up to 11 miles). Funny how its such an individual process in finding the right one.

Sheila

What would you suggest if someone wears orthotics? Or a heel lift (leg length difference)? Or both?

Jason

First keep in mind that orthotics/heel lift defeat some of the purpose of minimalist shoes. It might be more beneficial for you to strengthen your feet with the foot exercises, do a very small amount of running in regular shoes with no orthotics, and see how your feet feel after 3-4 weeks. Then you may be able to transition to minimalist shoes for 1 run per week or do a few barefoot strides. Take it slow!

Sheila

20 mm. leg length diff though!!!

Jason

That’s a significant leg length discrepancy; I’d do what your doctor says and keep that heel lift in!

Heather

I have very flat feet and used to wear orthotics and run in motion control shoes. About a year and a half ago, I started experimenting with less supportive shoes. Last year I got a pair of Five Fingers and very gradually, adding just 1/4 mile at a time, started running in them. I now do 1 short run (about 3 miles) per week in the Five Fingers, and I also wear them on walks and short hikes. My other runs I do in somewhat minimalist shoes like the Brooks Pure Connect. I feel like this transition, combined with leg strengthening exercises, has made my legs a lot stronger and I don’t get pain in my legs and hips like I used to, and I never wear the orthotics anymore. Not that this would work for everyone, but for me it has made a huge difference.

Holly

I have a leg length discrepancy as well, and I use a 12 mm lift. It fits fine inside my Vibram Four Fingers fine, but I’m not sure how much higher it could be and still fit. It’s probably worth a try. I do not use a full orthotic, I use the GW “clearly adjustable” lift only (link below) because they don’t compress over time so they last forever, and they mold a bit to your shoes, which is nice.

Holly

Forgot the link:
http://clearlyadjustable.com/
You can buy them on amazon.

Andrea

I am hugely appreciative of this article and only wish I would have seen it a year ago. I decided to research and re-train my stride with minimalist running last May. I went slowly and followed the Chi Running suggestions of higher foot turnover and posture. I’ve had great results. I rotate a variety of shoes from Vibram’s to Brooks. My times are faster and I’ve not been injured (yet!). Thanks for writing such a helpful and complete piece on this hot topic.

Jason

My pleasure Andrea. Glad to hear you’re seeing results!

Steve

Great article. I have been trying a pair of Brook PureFlow zero drop shoes. I definitely could feel my lower legs working harder and my pace slowed. Last Saturday, I ran 8 miles in them and tweaked my right calf (then I ran a fast paced 10 miler on Sunday in my Newtons). I haven’t been able to run this week. Lesson re-learned. I had been careful not to run my long run in the PureFlows, but I overdid it on Saturday.

I have been running in Newton’s the last year with fairly good success. They don’t qualify as minimal, but they have less of heel drop and have the lugs to promote a midfoot strike.

Steve

Jason

Hey Steve – haven’t tried the PureFlows, but they look like an interesting shoe and I didn’t know they were zero drop. Sorry to hear about your calf too – hopefully with some rest and aggressive treatment you’ll be back soon.

Kim

FYI the PureFlows has a 4mm drop,

lolo

As always, your writing is timely and informative, Jason. There’s so much information on this out there, but much of it is written by barefoot extremists who claim it’s a cure-all for every ailment under the sun and anyone who doesn’t get with the program is weak and stupid. I have not had a full pitcher of the kool-aid but a few small sips, and I am giving it a shot for purpose of strengthening, much like you described. I think for those for whom it won’t work as a full-time preference, it can be a great tool in one’s arsenal. I do have two questions on transitioning. I just got a pair of the Brooks PureGrit. I had scheduled a 3-mile easy run yesterday, so I ran 1.5 miles in my new minimalist shoes and then switched back into my Asics Gel 2170s + orthotics for the remaining 1.5 miles. The first half of the run was my first-ever in minimal shoes. Felt great but mildly tender in my left calf, which will pass. Q1. Was it a good strategy to run in both in one outting, or would you have suggested either doing two completely separate runs (say the first 1.5 in the morning in one set of shoes and the second 1.5 in the afternoon) or even just sticking to the 1.5 in the minimal shoes and forgoing my original 3-mile goal for the day? Or, am I over thinking it? Q2. How many days per week should I run in them during this transition? I typically run 3-5 miles twice a week with a third run on the weekend. For the third run, I alternate between a 5-8 mile run one week and a longer ( less than 15 mile run) the next. My plan, as you stated, is to add a quarter mile to the minimal shoe distance until my legs feel comfortable w/ the 3-mile distance. I’ve no intention of making them my long distance shoes because I don’t think that would work well for me. Your insights appreciated!

Jason

Hey Lolo – don’t drink the Kool Aid! It’s a great tool, but for most runners (though not all) shouldn’t become a lifestyle. For your first question, you’re probably overthinking a bit :) You can transition from minimalist to normal trainers in the same run (I do). For your second question, try staying at the 1.5 miles (if you’re comfortable at that distance) in the PureGrits for 2-3 weeks. Then you can add 1/4 mile once every 1-2 weeks. Think long-term! There’s no rush. Thanks for the questions.

lolo

LOL. Thanks for helping me keep it real : )

Andy

I have a pair of both the Saucony Kinvara 2 and the Brooks PureConnect. I like the Kinvaras a lot and LOVE the PureConnect. The PureConnect fit my foot beautifully and have cushions right where I need them. The low heel to toe drop (4 mm) actually feels like sloping backwards when I put them on because I’m used to dress and casual shoes with a heel. But it only takes a minute to adapt and running in them is a real treat. I strongly suggest trying both the Kinvaras and the PureConnect on to see how they fit for you.

lolo

interesting, Andy, as i also bought the saucony kinvara 2, though i haven’t run in them yet. i figured i’d alternate between those and the brooks puregrit, which is a trail hybrid. i’m excited about taking the kinvaras out for a spin, but after reading Jason’s great article, I guess I’ll wait ’til next week. Like he said, there’s no rush : ) Everyone else I know who has experimented with either barefoot or minimal shoes has seemed to grossly underestimate the results of taking on too much at once and even w/in this thread a few people have recounted their experiences with running too far, too soon or too often. You can really do significant muscle and/or structural damage to yourself that way, but the challenge is that often during the run it feels fine. It’s only later that you realize you exceeded your capacity, so I guess a little restraint is called for though it’s hard when you fly through that first mile and just wanna keep going : )

Wes

After tweaking my calf twice trying to get under way with my Vibrams, I worked my way up to 7 miles in them, but only for one run a week. I hadn’t run in them in a while, and I went and did 4 miles Wednesday. BAD IDEA. LOL. MY calves are not happy campers! Lesson learned.

Andy

An additional thought–for those trying to transition to minimalist shoes and/or to strengthen their feet and legs, don’t forget you can walk around the house barefoot, too! If you’re feet are used to shoes all the time, even this will help your feet adapt to the different pressure/mechanics of being barefoot and strengthen some of the muscles and tendons that get less work in shoes. As Jason noted, the mechanics of walking and running differ (heel strike, for example), but there is substantial overlap, too. A few hours a day should have an incremental effect that should help the overall effort.

Alex

I fell in love with the minimalist movement in early 2010 and started to run in fivefingers. I exclusively ran in them until september last year (except during the winter when I ran in Inov-8 X-talon 190) and I wen’t great. You need to keep in mind that 2011 was my first somewhat serious year of running. I did run Stockholm Marathon in the fivefingers and it went great shoe-wise.

Currently I average somewhere between 45-65km per week and usually run in Adidas Adizero Pro (flats), but I’m going to try the Kinvaras out since I want a pair of more cushioned shoes for my recovery runs. Going minimalist works great for me, but I really took the time to get used to running that way.

Lydia

Great article Fitz. There is an overwhelming amount of information on the subject out there, and I’m always glad to have your input. You know I’ve had problems with my feet in the past. I had plantar fasciitis and high arches and wore orthodox ALWAYS. I’m so happy almost everyday that I listened to your advice and strengthened my feet and got away from my orthodox. I don’t think that I would have done it as slowly and thoroughly if it weren’t for your advice and encouragement. Patience is always the key with change. I’ve been alternating my kinvaras every other run with a more supportive shoe. I have the opportunity (stay at home mom’s don’t need dress shoes all that often) to wear less supportive shoes during the day so my feet are stronger now. I’m to the point where I need to replace my more supportive shoes, and am thinking about taking a step down with them to a more minimal shoe., like the altra zero drops. Do you think that’s a good idea?

Jason

If you’re going to replace your supportive shoes, go a step down from THEM, not a step down from the Kinvaras. So your two shoes would be like two semi-minimalist shoes. Zero drop shoes take a lot of getting used to.

Lydia

Okay. I’ll do that. I kind of hate shoe shopping. I get so overwhelmed and I really want to trust the shoe guys, but then I think…jeez this kid doesn’t know what he’s talking about. He’s just trying to make so money. I hate it! When’s the next time you are in Utah…we could go shoe shopping? LOL

Jason

As soon as you fly me out, I’ll shoe shop with you for DAYS :)

Alex

I’ve fully transitioned, and don’t see myself going back. Whether it’s faster or not, I cant’ say. But certainly enjoy running with practically nothing on my feet. In any case, I think what you wear when you’re not running makes a massive difference in how successfully you transition. Spend as much time on your feet as you can, with as little shoe as you can. Even if you’re not going to run in “bareshoes”, I think this can only help. Also, I think cardio cross training and weight lifting are great opportunities to work in more minimal shoes.

Jason

Absolutely – all the time on your feet barefoot in your house, walking in flip flops, etc. are great opportunities to get in minimalist time without actually running. As with everything, gradual transition is key. Glad to hear you’ve found what works for you Alex! And it’s definitely more fun in minimalist shoes :)

trent

I used to fear not running in a heavy running shoe. I wore Brooks Beasts for six years. I figured they were what I needed because I was always injuring my calf muscles. After switching to a neutral shoe (Some Saucony shoes that cost $30 at the shoe outlet), my stride got better, I got faster, and the injuries went away. I wore the Sauconys during my first marathon and have switched to a lighter New Balance shoe. I often kick them off to run a half-mile or mile barefoot.

I tried the Kinvaras but they’re too narrow. I’ll give the Asics a go and see how they work. Thanks for the info. This is clearly one of the best running sites on the web. Thanks for everything.

Jason Fitzgerald

Nice job learning what’s working for you Trent. And thank you! That’s high praise!

Blaise Dubois

Hi Jason,
Question : Why are you recommending barefoot ou minimalist shoes just like a tool. If it’s so good to improve form, strength the lower limb, become more efficient… Why not using more? … always with respect of tissue adaptation. I thing we need to be carful to recommend to everybody our own conviction build on our own experience. In a point of view of injury prevention everything is a question of adaptation. Some runners will prefer running all their milage with very minimalist shoes. Why not if they are fully adapted? The best qualitative definition of minimalism for me is : “The least amount of shoes you can safely wear now.”

Jason Fitzgerald

Good question Blaise. It’s not my personal experience or conviction but rather from the perspective of performance improvement. Just like long runs, hill sprints, or tempo runs, each “ingredient” in a training program is a tool to help a runner reach a specific goal. It’s most instructive I think to look st the training of elites who are coached by the best coaches in the world. They wear a variety of shoes with different purposes. But yes, I absolutely agree that every runner should wear the least shoe safely possible. But during different workouts and times of the training cycle that will naturally vary.

aroon

I forgot my shoes when visiting my friends place in a differnt town (they were salmon trail runners), with no footwear i used the emergency foot wear (Army PT shoes) , intially they created lot of discomfort in foot and achilles tendon, but it has been over a month now and i am fairly comfortable in them, they r flat and flexible and next to barefoot.

aroon

I meant INDIAN army pt shoes, they r flat with almost no sole, and cloth upper, kind used by old british army and british indian army.

Adam

I have been training and running with new balance minumus trail as road for about 6 months. The initial break in process was grueling, sore feet, heels etc. finally built up nice callouses and lower leg strenght. Nonetheless it’s true, if you train only in minimals your thighs will get weak, as I found out by putting on my regular running shoes and doing a three mile medium pace, it felt like I was doing a leg workout. My experience told me to definitely mix it up!

Alan

One step between barefoot and Vibram might be Luna Sandals as promoted by BareFoot Ted of ‘Born to Run’ fame.
https://www.lunasandals.com
Has anybody here tried these?

Corey

I think if you’re just looking at making the transition from a normal running shoe to a minimal style running shoe you should move to a medium sized shoe to “minimalize” the shock your feet take in transition. You DON’T want to injure anything in this process.

If you’re going to make the switch my recommendation would be starting with something like the New Balance 890 which is a middle of the road style shoe, perfect for the first step in this transition. After you get use to this style of shoe, then you could move to minimal style shoe like the NB Minimus without threat of injury.

Billy Dean

Thanks for posting this article, Jason. Good stuff, and I appreciate you not being absolutist about your advice. All runners have two legs with feet on their ankles, but that’s about as far as you can go with saying we are alike. My transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes began two years ago, and I have been pretty cautious about it. Probably one reason why it is still progressing well. As you know, I am an older runner, so it’s my view that age and running history should be factored in when any runner begins the transition. It’s a transition, not a sudden switch.

Two years ago, after not running very much at all for several years, I bought a pair of Asics Nimbus shoes. And found myself heel striking! Yikes! My arch is pretty high and I have always landed mid-foot or fore-foot, so that was an unpleasant surprise. After discovering the excessive heel to toe drop (probably more than 12mm) was the cause, I bought a pair of Asics Gel Ds 16s (10 mm?) and noticed the difference immediately. Next was a pair of Asics Fuji Racers (6-7mm), because most of my runs are on trails. Then I got a pair of Kinvaras (4mm) for speed work and an occasional run on roads.

I have run in Asics most of my life. Remember the Epirus? That was back when we called them Tigers. So I was interested in your comments about the Asics Speedstars, but quite a few reviews said there isn’t much cushioning for the midsole. Has that been your experience? You said you tend to land a bit on your heel. Is that perhaps why the Speedstar doesn’t bother you?

Patrice

Great review, which makes me think this is just the shoes I was looking for!
One question: how do they fare on wet surfaces? I switched to minimalist shoes with a pair of Minimus M10v2 Trail, and even though the sole is made by Vibram they are rather slippery on wet roads, and I have no traction power. I am not a very big fan of five fingers, but I love the roomy toe box on the Minimus. I am not sure I want to go the way of the Inov-8 bare grip 200 or Five fingers Spyridon.

Jason Fitzgerald

Never tested them on wet surfaces, but my guess is probably not great. The sole is very rubbery so it might be prone to slipping.

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